curs_util 3x

curs_util(3x)                                             curs_util(3x)


       delay_output, filter, flushinp, getwin, key_name, keyname,
       nofilter, putwin, unctrl, use_env, use_tioctl, wunctrl -
       miscellaneous curses utility routines


       #include <curses.h>

       char *unctrl(chtype c);
       wchar_t *wunctrl(cchar_t *c);
       char *keyname(int c);
       char *key_name(wchar_t w);
       void filter(void);
       void nofilter(void);
       void use_env(bool f);
       void use_tioctl(bool f);
       int putwin(WINDOW *win, FILE *filep);
       WINDOW *getwin(FILE *filep);
       int delay_output(int ms);
       int flushinp(void);



       The  unctrl  routine returns a character string which is a
       printable representation of the character c, ignoring  at-
       tributes.   Control characters are displayed in the ^X no-
       tation.  Printing characters are  displayed  as  is.   The
       corresponding  wunctrl  returns a printable representation
       of a wide character.


       The keyname routine returns a character string correspond-
       ing to the key c:

       o   Printable  characters  are  displayed  as  themselves,
           e.g., a one-character string containing the key.

       o   Control characters are displayed in the ^X notation.

       o   DEL (character 127) is displayed as ^?.

       o   Values above 128 are either meta  characters  (if  the
           screen  has  not been initialized, or if meta has been
           called with a TRUE parameter), shown in the M-X  nota-
           tion,  or  are displayed as themselves.  In the latter
           case, the values may not be  printable;  this  follows
           the X/Open specification.

       o   Values  above  256  may  be  the names of the names of
           function keys.

       o   Otherwise (if there  is  no  corresponding  name)  the
           function returns null, to denote an error.  X/Open al-
           so lists an "UNKNOWN KEY" return value, which some im-
           plementations return rather than null.

       The corresponding key_name returns a character string cor-
       responding to the wide-character value w.  The  two  func-
       tions  do  not  return the same set of strings; the latter
       returns null where the former would display a meta charac-


       The filter routine, if used, must be called before initscr
       or newterm are called.  The effect is that,  during  those
       calls,  LINES  is  set  to 1; the capabilities clear, cup,
       cud, cud1, cuu1, cuu,  vpa  are  disabled;  and  the  home
       string is set to the value of cr.

       The  nofilter  routine  cancels  the effect of a preceding
       filter call.  That  allows  the  caller  to  initialize  a
       screen  on  a different device, using a different value of
       $TERM.  The limitation arises because the  filter  routine
       modifies the in-memory copy of the terminal information.


       The  use_env  routine,  if  used,  should be called before
       initscr or newterm are called (because those  compute  the
       screen size).  It modifies the way ncurses treats environ-
       ment variables when determining the screen size.

       o   Normally ncurses looks first at the terminal  database
           for the screen size.

           If  use_env  was  called  with FALSE for parameter, it
           stops here unless If use_tioctl was also  called  with
           TRUE for parameter.

       o   Then  it asks for the screen size via operating system
           calls.  If successful, it overrides  the  values  from
           the terminal database.

       o   Finally  (unless use_env was called with FALSE parame-
           ter), ncurses examines the LINES or  COLUMNS  environ-
           ment variables, using a value in those to override the
           results from the operating system  or  terminal  data-

           Ncurses  also  updates  the screen size in response to
           SIGWINCH, unless overridden by the  LINES  or  COLUMNS
           environment variables,


       The  use_tioctl  routine, if used, should be called before
       initscr or newterm are called (because those  compute  the
       screen  size).  After use_tioctl is called with TRUE as an
       argument, ncurses modifies the last step in  its  computa-
       tion of screen size as follows:

       o   checks  if the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables
           are set to a number greater than zero.

       o   for each, ncurses updates the  corresponding  environ-
           ment  variable with the value that it has obtained via
           operating system call or from the terminal database.

       o   ncurses re-fetches the value of the environment  vari-
           ables  so  that  it is still the environment variables
           which set the screen size.

       The use_env and use_tioctl routines combine as  summarized

     use_env   use_tioctl   Summary

     TRUE      FALSE        This  is  the default behavior.  ncurses
                            uses operating system calls unless over-
                            ridden by $LINES or $COLUMNS environment
     TRUE      TRUE         ncurses  updates  $LINES  and   $COLUMNS
                            based on operating system calls.
     FALSE     TRUE         ncurses ignores $LINES and $COLUMNS, us-
                            es  operating  system  calls  to  obtain
     FALSE     FALSE        ncurses  relies on the terminal database
                            to determine size.


       The putwin routine writes all data associated with  window
       (or  pad)  win  into the file to which filep points.  This
       information can be later retrieved using the getwin  func-

       The getwin routine reads window related data stored in the
       file by putwin.  The routine then creates and  initializes
       a new window using that data.  It returns a pointer to the
       new window.  There are a few caveats:

       o   the data written is a copy of  the  WINDOW  structure,
           and  its  associated character cells.  The format dif-
           fers between the wide-character  (ncursesw)  and  non-
           wide  (ncurses)  libraries.  You can transfer data be-
           tween the two, however.

       o   the retrieved window is always created as a  top-level
           window (or pad), rather than a subwindow.

       o   the  window's  character  cells contain the color pair
           value, but not the actual color numbers.  If cells  in
           the  retrieved  window  use color pairs which have not
           been created in the application using init_pair,  they
           will not be colored when the window is refreshed.


       The  delay_output  routine inserts an ms millisecond pause
       in output.  This routine should not  be  used  extensively
       because  padding  characters  are  used  rather than a CPU
       pause.  If no padding character is  specified,  this  uses
       napms to perform the delay.


       The  flushinp  routine  throws away any typeahead that has
       been typed by the user and has not yet been  read  by  the


       Except  for  flushinp, routines that return an integer re-
       turn ERR upon failure and OK (SVr4 specifies only "an  in-
       teger value other than ERR") upon successful completion.

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

       X/Open  does not define any error conditions.  In this im-

               returns an error if the terminal was not  initial-

          meta returns  an error if the terminal was not initial-

               returns an error if the  associated  fwrite  calls
               return an error.



       The SVr4 documentation describes the action of filter only
       in the vaguest terms.  The  description  here  is  adapted
       from  the  XSI Curses standard (which erroneously fails to
       describe the disabling of cuu).


       The keyname function may return the names of  user-defined
       string  capabilities which are defined in the terminfo en-
       try via the -x option of tic.  This  implementation  auto-
       matically  assigns  at  run-time  keycodes to user-defined
       strings which begin  with  "k".   The  keycodes  start  at
       KEY_MAX,  but  are not guaranteed to be the same value for
       different runs because user-defined codes are merged  from
       all  terminal  descriptions  which  have been loaded.  The
       use_extended_names function controls whether this data  is
       loaded  when  the  terminal description is read by the li-


       The nofilter  and  use_tioctl  routines  are  specific  to
       ncurses.   They  were  not  supported on Version 7, BSD or
       System V implementations.  It is recommended that any code
       depending  on  ncurses  extensions  be  conditioned  using


       The putwin and getwin functions have several  issues  with

       o   The  files  written and read by these functions use an
           implementation-specific format.  Although  the  format
           is  an obvious target for standardization, it has been

           Interestingly enough, according to the copyright dates
           in Solaris source, the functions (along with scr_init,
           etc.) originated with the  University  of  California,
           Berkeley  (in  1982) and were later (in 1988) incorpo-
           rated into SVr4.  Oddly, there are no  such  functions
           in the 4.3BSD curses sources.

       o   Most  implementations  simply  dump  the binary WINDOW
           structure to the file.   These  include  SVr4  curses,
           NetBSD  and  PDCurses,  as  well as older ncurses ver-
           sions.  This implementation (as  well  as  the  X/Open
           variant  of  Solaris  curses, dated 1995) uses textual

           The implementations which use binary dumps use  block-
           I/O  (the fwrite and fread functions).  Those that use
           textual dumps use buffered-I/O.   A  few  applications
           may happen to write extra data in the file using these
           functions.  Doing that can run  into  problems  mixing
           block-  and buffered-I/O.  This implementation reduces
           the problem on writes by flushing the output.   Howev-
           er,  reading  from  a file written using mixed schemes
           may not be successful.


       The XSI Curses standard, Issue  4  describes  these  func-
       tions.   It  states  that unctrl and wunctrl will return a
       null pointer if unsuccessful, but does not define any  er-
       ror conditions.  This implementation checks for three cas-

       o   the parameter is a 7-bit US-ASCII code.  This  is  the
           case that X/Open Curses documented.

       o   the parameter is in the range 128-159, i.e., a C1 con-
           trol code.  If use_legacy_coding has been called  with
           a  2  parameter, unctrl returns the parameter, i.e., a
           one-character string with the parameter as  the  first
           character.   Otherwise,  it  returns "~@", "~A", etc.,
           analogous to "^@", "^A", C0 controls.

           X/Open Curses does not document whether unctrl can  be
           called  before  initializing curses.  This implementa-
           tion permits that, and returns the "~@", etc.,  values
           in that case.

       o   parameter  values  outside the 0 to 255 range.  unctrl
           returns a null pointer.

       The strings returned by unctrl in this implementation  are
       determined  at  compile time, showing C1 controls from the
       upper-128 codes with a `~' prefix rather than `^'.   Other
       implementations  have different conventions.  For example,
       they may show both sets of control  characters  with  `^',
       and  strip the parameter to 7 bits.  Or they may ignore C1
       controls and treat all of the upper-128  codes  as  print-
       able.  This implementation uses 8 bits but does not modify
       the string to reflect locale.  The use_legacy_coding func-
       tion allows the caller to change the output of unctrl.

       Likewise,  the  meta  function allows the caller to change
       the output of keyname, i.e., it determines whether to  use
       the `M-' prefix for "meta" keys (codes in the range 128 to
       255).  Both use_legacy_coding and meta succeed only  after
       curses  is  initialized.   X/Open Curses does not document
       the treatment of codes 128 to 159.  When treating them  as
       "meta"  keys  (or if keyname is called before initializing
       curses),  this  implementation  returns  strings   "M-^@",
       "M-^A", etc.


       legacy_coding(3x), curses(3x), curs_initscr(3x), curs_ker-
       nel(3x),  curs_scr_dump(3x),   curs_variables(3x),   lega-