http://invisible-island.net/dialog/


dialog(1)


NAME

       dialog - display dialog boxes from shell scripts


SYNOPSIS

       dialog --clear
       dialog --create-rc file
       dialog --print-maxsize
       dialog common-options box-options


DESCRIPTION

       Dialog is a program that will let you present a variety of questions or
       display messages using dialog boxes from a shell script.   These  types
       of  dialog  boxes  are implemented (though not all are necessarily com-
       piled into dialog):

              buildlist, calendar, checklist, dselect, editbox, form, fselect,
              gauge, infobox, inputbox, inputmenu, menu, mixedform,
              mixedgauge, msgbox (message), passwordbox, passwordform, pause,
              prgbox, programbox, progressbox, radiolist, rangebox, tailbox,
              tailboxbg, textbox, timebox, treeview, and yesno (yes/no).

       You can put more than one dialog box into a script:

       o   Use the "--and-widget" token to force dialog to proceed to the next
           dialog unless you have pressed ESC to cancel, or

       o   Simply add the tokens for the next dialog box, making a chain.  Di-
           alog stops chaining when the return code from a dialog is  nonzero,
           e.g., Cancel or No (see DIAGNOSTICS).

       Some  widgets,  e.g.,  checklist,  will  write text to dialog's output.
       Normally that is the standard error, but there are options for changing
       this:  "--output-fd", "--stderr" and "--stdout".  No text is written if
       the Cancel button (or ESC) is pressed; dialog exits immediately in that
       case.


OPTIONS

       All  options  begin  with  "--"  (two ASCII hyphens, for the benefit of
       those using systems with deranged locale support).

       A "--" by itself is used as an escape, i.e., the next token on the com-
       mand-line is not treated as an option.
              dialog --title -- --Not an option

       The "--args" option tells dialog to list the command-line parameters to
       the standard error.  This is useful when debugging complex scripts  us-
       ing  the  "--" and "--file", since the command-line may be rewritten as
       these are expanded.

       The "--file" option tells dialog to read parameters from the file named
       as its value.
              dialog --file parameterfile
       Blanks not within double-quotes are discarded (use backslashes to quote
       single characters).  The result is inserted into the command-line,  re-
       placing  "--file" and its option value.  Interpretation of the command-
       line resumes from that point.  If parameterfile begins with "&", dialog
       interprets the following text as a file descriptor number rather than a
       filename.


Common Options

       --ascii-lines
              Rather than draw graphics lines around boxes, draw ASCII "+" and
              "-" in the same place.  See also "--no-lines".

       --aspect ratio
              This  gives  you some control over the box dimensions when using
              auto sizing (specifying 0 for height and width).  It  represents
              width / height.  The default is 9, which means 9 characters wide
              to every 1 line high.

       --backtitle backtitle
              Specifies a backtitle string to be displayed on the backdrop, at
              the top of the screen.

       --begin y x
              Specify the position of the upper left corner of a dialog box on
              the screen.

       --cancel-label string
              Override the label used for "Cancel" buttons.

       --clear
              Clears the widget screen, keeping only  the  screen_color  back-
              ground.   Use  this when you combine widgets with "--and-widget"
              to erase the contents of a previous widget on the screen, so  it
              won't  be seen under the contents of a following widget.  Under-
              stand this as the complement of "--keep-window".  To compare the
              effects, use these:

              All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 1,2,3:

              dialog \
                                             --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              Only the last widget is left visible:

              dialog \
                               --clear       --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget --clear       --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,2,1:

              dialog \
                               --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget --keep-window --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              First and third widget visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,1:

              dialog \
                               --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget --clear       --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                  --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              Note,  if  you  want to restore original console colors and send
              your cursor home after the dialog program has  exited,  use  the
              clear (1) command.

       --colors
              Interpret embedded "\Z" sequences in the dialog text by the fol-
              lowing character, which tells dialog to set colors or video  at-
              tributes:

              o   0  through  7  are  the  ANSI  color numbers used in curses:
                  black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan and white re-
                  spectively.

              o   Bold is set by 'b', reset by 'B'.

              o   Reverse is set by 'r', reset by 'R'.

              o   Underline is set by 'u', reset by 'U'.

              o   The  settings  are cumulative, e.g., "\Zb\Z1" makes the fol-
                  lowing text bold (perhaps bright) red.

              o   Restore normal settings with "\Zn".

       --column-separator string
              Tell dialog to split data for radio/checkboxes and menus on  the
              occurrences of the given string, and to align the split data in-
              to columns.

       --cr-wrap
              Interpret embedded newlines in the dialog text as a  newline  on
              the screen.  Otherwise, dialog will only wrap lines where needed
              to fit inside the text box.

              Even though you can control line breaks with this,  Dialog  will
              still wrap any lines that are too long for the width of the box.
              Without cr-wrap, the layout of your text  may  be  formatted  to
              look  nice  in  the source code of your script without affecting
              the way it will look in the dialog.

              See also the "--no-collapse" and "--trim" options.

       --create-rc file
              When dialog supports run-time configuration, this can be used to
              dump a sample configuration file to the file specified by file.

       --date-format format
              If the host provides strftime, this option allows you to specify
              the format of the date printed for the --calendar  widget.   The
              time of day (hour, minute, second) are the current local time.

       --defaultno
              Make  the  default value of the yes/no box a No.  Likewise, make
              the default button of widgets that provide "OK" and  "Cancel"  a
              Cancel.   If "--nocancel" or "--visit-items" are given those op-
              tions overrides this, making the  default  button  always  "Yes"
              (internally the same as "OK").

       --default-button string
              Set the default (preselected) button in a widget.  By preselect-
              ing a button, a script makes it possible for the user to  simply
              press  Enter  to  proceed through a dialog with minimum interac-
              tion.

              The option's value is the name of the button: ok,  yes,  cancel,
              no, help or extra.

              Normally  the  first  button in each widget is the default.  The
              first button shown is determined by the widget together with the
              "--nook"  and "--nocancel options.  If this option is not given,
              there is no default button assigned.

       --default-item string
              Set the default item in a checklist, form or menu box.  Normally
              the first item in the box is the default.

       --exit-label string
              Override the label used for "EXIT" buttons.

       --extra-button
              Show an extra button, between "OK" and "Cancel" buttons.

       --extra-label string
              Override  the  label used for "Extra" buttons.  Note: for input-
              menu widgets, this defaults to "Rename".

       --help Prints the help message to the standard output and  exits.   The
              help  message  is also printed if no options are given, or if an
              unrecognized option is given.

       --help-button
              Show a help-button after "OK" and  "Cancel"  buttons,  i.e.,  in
              checklist, radiolist and menu boxes.

              On  exit,  the  return status will indicate that the Help button
              was pressed.  Dialog will also write a message to its output af-
              ter the token "HELP":

              o   If  "--item-help"  is also given, the item-help text will be
                  written.

              o   Otherwise, the item's tag (the first field) will be written.

              You  can  use  the  --help-tags  option  and/or  set  the   DIA-
              LOG_ITEM_HELP  environment variable to modify these messages and
              exit-status.

       --help-label string
              Override the label used for "Help" buttons.

       --help-status
              If the help-button is selected, writes the checklist,  radiolist
              or  form  information  after  the  item-help "HELP" information.
              This can be used to reconstruct the state of a  checklist  after
              processing the help request.

       --help-tags
              Modify  the messages written on exit for --help-button by making
              them always just the item's tag.  This does not affect the  exit
              status code.

       --hfile filename
              Display the given file using a textbox when the user presses F1.

       --hline string
              Display the given string centered at the bottom of the widget.

       --ignore
              Ignore  options that dialog does not recognize.  Some well-known
              ones such as "--icon" are ignored anyway, but this is  a  better
              choice for compatibility with other implementations.

       --input-fd fd
              Read keyboard input from the given file descriptor.  Most dialog
              scripts read from the standard input, but the gauge widget reads
              a pipe (which is always standard input).  Some configurations do
              not work properly when dialog tries to reopen the terminal.  Use
              this  option  (with appropriate juggling of file-descriptors) if
              your script must work in that type of environment.

       --insecure
              Makes the password widget friendlier but less secure, by echoing
              asterisks for each character.

       --item-help
              Interpret  the tags data for checklist, radiolist and menu boxes
              adding a column which is displayed in the  bottom  line  of  the
              screen, for the currently selected item.

       --keep-tite
              When  built with ncurses, dialog normally checks to see if it is
              running in an xterm, and in that case tries to suppress the ini-
              tialization  strings  that would make it switch to the alternate
              screen.  Switching between the normal and alternate  screens  is
              visually  distracting  in  a  script  which  runs dialog several
              times.  Use this option to allow dialog to use those initializa-
              tion strings.

       --keep-window
              Normally when dialog performs several tailboxbg widgets connect-
              ed by "--and-widget", it clears the old widget from  the  screen
              by  painting over it.  Use this option to suppress that repaint-
              ing.

              At exit, dialog repaints all of  the  widgets  which  have  been
              marked with "--keep-window", even if they are not tailboxbg wid-
              gets.  That causes them to be repainted in reverse  order.   See
              the discussion of the "--clear" option for examples.

       --last-key
              At  exit,  report  the last key which the user entered.  This is
              the curses key code rather than a symbol or  literal  character.
              It  can be used by scripts to distinguish between two keys which
              are bound to the same action.

       --max-input size
              Limit input strings to the given size.  If  not  specified,  the
              limit is 2048.

       --no-cancel

       --nocancel
              Suppress the "Cancel" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box
              modes.  A script can still test if the user pressed the ESC  key
              to cancel to quit.

       --no-collapse
              Normally  dialog  converts  tabs  to spaces and reduces multiple
              spaces to a single space for text which is displayed in  a  mes-
              sage boxes, etc.  Use this option to disable that feature.  Note
              that dialog will still wrap text, subject to the "--cr-wrap" and
              "--trim" options.

       --no-items
              Some  widgets  (checklist, inputmenu, radiolist, menu) display a
              list with two columns (a "tag" and "item", i.e., "description").
              This  option  tells  dialog  to  read shorter rows, omitting the
              "item" part of the list.  This is occasionally useful, e.g.,  if
              the tags provide enough information.

              See  also --no-tags.  If both options are given, this one is ig-
              nored.

       --no-kill
              Tells dialog to put the tailboxbg box in the background,  print-
              ing  its  process id to dialog's output.  SIGHUP is disabled for
              the background process.

       --no-label string
              Override the label used for "No" buttons.

       --no-lines
              Rather than draw lines around boxes, draw  spaces  in  the  same
              place.  See also "--ascii-lines".

       --no-mouse
              Do not enable the mouse.

       --no-nl-expand
              Do  not  convert "\n" substrings of the message/prompt text into
              literal newlines.

       --no-ok

       --nook Suppress the "OK" button in checklist,  inputbox  and  menu  box
              modes.   A script can still test if the user pressed the "Enter"
              key to accept the data.

       --no-shadow
              Suppress shadows that would be drawn to the right and bottom  of
              each dialog box.

       --no-tags
              Some  widgets  (checklist, inputmenu, radiolist, menu) display a
              list with two columns (a "tag" and "description").  The  tag  is
              useful  for scripting, but may not help the user.  The --no-tags
              option (from Xdialog) may be used to suppress the column of tags
              from  the  display.  Unlike the --no-items option, this does not
              affect the data which is read from the script.

              Xdialog does not  display  the  tag  column  for  the  analogous
              buildlist and treeview widgets; dialog does the same.

              Normally  dialog  allows  you  to quickly move to entries on the
              displayed list, by matching a  single  character  to  the  first
              character  of the tag.  When the --no-tags option is given, dia-
              log matches against the first character of the description.   In
              either case, the matchable character is highlighted.

       --ok-label string
              Override the label used for "OK" buttons.

       --output-fd fd
              Direct output to the given file descriptor.  Most dialog scripts
              write to the standard error, but  error  messages  may  also  be
              written there, depending on your script.

       --separator string

       --output-separatorstring
              Specify  a string that will separate the output on dialog's out-
              put from checklists, rather than a newline (for  --separate-out-
              put)  or  a  space.  This applies to other widgets such as forms
              and editboxes which normally use a newline.

       --print-maxsize
              Print the maximum size of dialog boxes, i.e., the  screen  size,
              to  dialog's  output.  This may be used alone, without other op-
              tions.

       --print-size
              Prints the size of each dialog box to dialog's output.

       --print-version
              Prints dialog's version to dialog's output.  This  may  be  used
              alone,  without other options.  It does not cause dialog to exit
              by itself.

       --quoted
              Normally dialog quotes the strings returned  by  checklist's  as
              well as the item-help text.  Use this option to quote all string
              results.

       --scrollbar
              For widgets holding a scrollable set of data, draw  a  scrollbar
              on its right-margin.  This does not respond to the mouse.

       --separate-output
              For certain widgets (buildlist, checklist, treeview), output re-
              sult one line at a time,  with  no  quoting.   This  facilitates
              parsing by another program.

       --separate-widget string
              Specify  a string that will separate the output on dialog's out-
              put from each widget.  This is used to simplify parsing the  re-
              sult  of  a  dialog with several widgets.  If this option is not
              given, the default separator string is a tab character.

       --shadow
              Draw a shadow to the right and bottom of each dialog box.

       --single-quoted
              Use single-quoting as needed (and no quotes if unneeded) for the
              output  of  checklist's  as well as the item-help text.  If this
              option is not set, dialog uses double quotes around  each  item.
              In  either case, dialog adds backslashes to make the output use-
              ful in shell scripts.

       --size-err
              Check the resulting size of a dialog box before  trying  to  use
              it, printing the resulting size if it is larger than the screen.
              (This  option  is  obsolete,  since  all  new-window  calls  are
              checked).

       --sleep secs
              Sleep (delay) for the given number of seconds after processing a
              dialog box.

       --stderr
              Direct output to the standard error.  This is the default, since
              curses normally writes screen updates to the standard output.

       --stdout
              Direct  output  to the standard output.  This option is provided
              for compatibility with Xdialog, however  using  it  in  portable
              scripts  is  not  recommended,  since curses normally writes its
              screen updates to the standard output.  If you use this  option,
              dialog  attempts  to  reopen the terminal so it can write to the
              display.  Depending on the platform and your  environment,  that
              may fail.

       --tab-correct
              Convert  each  tab  character  to  one  or  more spaces (for the
              textbox widget; otherwise to a single space).   Otherwise,  tabs
              are rendered according to the curses library's interpretation.

       --tab-len n
              Specify  the  number  of spaces that a tab character occupies if
              the "--tab-correct" option is given.  The default  is  8.   This
              option is only effective for the textbox widget.

       --time-format format
              If the host provides strftime, this option allows you to specify
              the format of the time printed for the  --timebox  widget.   The
              day,  month,  year values in this case are for the current local
              time.

       --timeout secs
              Timeout (exit with error code) if no user  response  within  the
              given number of seconds.  A timeout of zero seconds is ignored.

              This  option  is  ignored  by  the "--pause" widget.  It is also
              overridden if the background "--tailboxbg"  option  is  used  to
              setup multiple concurrent widgets.

       --title title
              Specifies  a title string to be displayed at the top of the dia-
              log box.

       --trace filename
              logs the command-line parameters, keystrokes and other  informa-
              tion to the given file.  If dialog reads a configure file, it is
              logged as well.  Piped input to the gauge widget is logged.  Use
              control/T to log a picture of the current dialog window.

       The  dialog program handles some command-line parameters specially, and
       removes them from the parameter list as they are processed.  For  exam-
       ple,  if  the  first option is --trace, then that is processed (and re-
       moved) before dialog initializes the display.

       --trim eliminate leading blanks, trim  literal  newlines  and  repeated
              blanks from message text.

              See also the "--cr-wrap" and "--no-collapse" options.

       --version
              Prints  dialog's version to the standard output, and exits.  See
              also "--print-version".

       --visit-items
              Modify the tab-traversal of checklist,  radiolist,  menubox  and
              inputmenu  to  include  the  list of items as one of the states.
              This is useful as a visual aid, i.e., the cursor position  helps
              some users.

              When this option is given, the cursor is initially placed on the
              list.  Abbreviations (the first letter of the tag) apply to  the
              list  items.   If you tab to the button row, abbreviations apply
              to the buttons.

       --yes-label string
              Override the label used for "Yes" buttons.


Box Options

       All dialog boxes have at least three parameters:

       text   the caption or contents of the box.

       height the height of the dialog box.

       width  the width of the dialog box.

       Other parameters depend on the box type.

       --buildlist text height width list-height [ tag item status ] ...
              A buildlist dialog displays two lists, side-by-side.   The  list
              on the left shows unselected items.  The list on the right shows
              selected items.  As items are selected or unselected, they  move
              between the lists.

              Use  a  carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current
              value in the selected-window and exit.  The results are  written
              using the order displayed in the selected-window.

              The initial on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

              The  dialog behaves like a menu, using the --visit-items to con-
              trol whether the cursor is allowed to visit the lists directly.

              o   If --visit-items is not given, tab-traversal uses two states
                  (OK/Cancel).

              o   If  --visit-items  is  given, tab-traversal uses four states
                  (Left/Right/OK/Cancel).

              Whether or not --visit-items is given, it is  possible  to  move
              the highlight between the two lists using the default "^" (left-
              column) and "$" (right-column) keys.

              On exit, a list of the tag strings of  those  entries  that  are
              turned on will be printed on dialog's output.

              If the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will
              be quoted as needed to make it simple for  scripts  to  separate
              them.   By default, this uses double-quotes.  See the "--single-
              quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --calendar text height width day month year
              A calendar box displays month, day and year  in  separately  ad-
              justable  windows.   If  the  values  for day, month or year are
              missing or negative, the current date's corresponding values are
              used.   You  can  increment  or decrement any of those using the
              left-, up-, right-, and down-arrows.  Use vi-style h, j, k and l
              for  moving  around  the  array  of days in a month.  Use tab or
              backtab to move between windows.  If the year is given as  zero,
              the current date is used as an initial value.

              On  exit,  the  date is printed in the form day/month/year.  The
              format can be overridden using the --date-format option.

       --checklist text height width list-height [ tag item status ] ...
              A checklist box is similar to a menu box; there are multiple en-
              tries  presented  in  the form of a menu.  Another difference is
              that you can indicate which entry is currently selected, by set-
              ting  its status to on.  Instead of choosing one entry among the
              entries, each entry can be turned on or off by  the  user.   The
              initial on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

              On  exit,  a  list  of the tag strings of those entries that are
              turned on will be printed on dialog's output.

              If the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will
              be  quoted  as  needed to make it simple for scripts to separate
              them.  By default, this uses double-quotes.  See the  "--single-
              quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --dselect filepath height width
              The  directory-selection  dialog displays a text-entry window in
              which you can type a directory, and above that  a  windows  with
              directory names.

              Here filepath can be a filepath in which case the directory win-
              dow will display the contents of the  path  and  the  text-entry
              window will contain the preselected directory.

              Use  tab  or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the
              directory window, use the up/down arrow keys to scroll the  cur-
              rent selection.  Use the space-bar to copy the current selection
              into the text-entry window.

              Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry
              window,  entering that character as well as scrolling the direc-
              tory window to the closest match.

              Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept  the  current
              value in the text-entry window and exit.

              On  exit,  the  contents of the text-entry window are written to
              dialog's output.

       --editbox filepath height width
              The edit-box dialog displays a copy of the file.  You  may  edit
              it using the backspace, delete and cursor keys to correct typing
              errors.  It also recognizes pageup/pagedown.  Unlike  the  --in-
              putbox,  you  must  tab to the "OK" or "Cancel" buttons to close
              the dialog.  Pressing the "Enter" key within the box will  split
              the corresponding line.

              On exit, the contents of the edit window are written to dialog's
              output.

       --form text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ] ...
              The form dialog displays a form consisting of labels and fields,
              which are positioned on a scrollable window by coordinates given
              in the script.  The field length flen and input-length ilen tell
              how  long the field can be.  The former defines the length shown
              for a selected field, while the latter defines  the  permissible
              length of the data entered in the field.

              o   If  flen is zero, the corresponding field cannot be altered.
                  and the contents  of  the  field  determine  the  displayed-
                  length.

              o   If  flen  is negative, the corresponding field cannot be al-
                  tered, and the negated value of flen is  used  as  the  dis-
                  played-length.

              o   If ilen is zero, it is set to flen.

              Use  up/down  arrows  (or  control/N, control/P) to move between
              fields.  Use tab to move between windows.

              On exit, the contents of the form-fields are written to dialog's
              output,  each  field  separated  by a newline.  The text used to
              fill non-editable fields (flen is zero or negative) is not writ-
              ten out.

       --fselect filepath height width
              The fselect (file-selection) dialog displays a text-entry window
              in which you can type a filename (or directory), and above  that
              two windows with directory names and filenames.

              Here  filepath  can be a filepath in which case the file and di-
              rectory windows will display the contents of the  path  and  the
              text-entry window will contain the preselected filename.

              Use  tab  or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the
              directory or filename windows, use the  up/down  arrow  keys  to
              scroll  the  current  selection.   Use the space-bar to copy the
              current selection into the text-entry window.

              Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry
              window,  entering that character as well as scrolling the direc-
              tory and filename windows to the closest match.

              Typing the space character forces dialog to complete the current
              name  (up  to  the point where there may be a match against more
              than one entry).

              Use a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept  the  current
              value in the text-entry window and exit.

              On  exit,  the  contents of the text-entry window are written to
              dialog's output.

       --gauge text height width [percent]
              A gauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the  box.   The
              meter  indicates  the percentage.  New percentages are read from
              standard input, one integer per line.  The meter is  updated  to
              reflect  each  new  percentage.  If the standard input reads the
              string "XXX", then the first line following is taken as an inte-
              ger  percentage,  then  subsequent lines up to another "XXX" are
              used for a new prompt.  The gauge exits when EOF is  reached  on
              the standard input.

              The  percent  value  denotes the initial percentage shown in the
              meter.  If not specified, it is zero.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  The widget  ac-
              cepts no input, so the exit status is always OK.

       --infobox text height width
              An  info box is basically a message box.  However, in this case,
              dialog will exit immediately after displaying the message to the
              user.   The screen is not cleared when dialog exits, so that the
              message will remain on the screen until the calling shell script
              clears it later.  This is useful when you want to inform the us-
              er that some operations are carrying on that  may  require  some
              time to finish.

              On  exit,  no  text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK"
              button is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be  re-
              turned.

       --inputbox text height width [init]
              An  input  box is useful when you want to ask questions that re-
              quire the user to input a string as the answer.  If init is sup-
              plied  it is used to initialize the input string.  When entering
              the string, the backspace, delete and cursor keys can be used to
              correct  typing  errors.  If the input string is longer than can
              fit in the dialog box, the input field will be scrolled.

              On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --inputmenu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
              An inputmenu box is very similar to an ordinary menu box.  There
              are only a few differences between them:

              1.  The  entries are not automatically centered but left adjust-
                  ed.

              2.  An extra button (called Rename) is  implied  to  rename  the
                  current item when it is pressed.

              3.  It  is  possible to rename the current entry by pressing the
                  Rename button.  Then dialog will write the following on dia-
                  log's output.

                  RENAMED <tag> <item>

       --menu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
              As  its  name  suggests,  a menu box is a dialog box that can be
              used to present a list of choices in the form of a menu for  the
              user to choose.  Choices are displayed in the order given.  Each
              menu entry consists of a tag string and an item string.  The tag
              gives  the entry a name to distinguish it from the other entries
              in the menu.  The item is a short description of the option that
              the  entry  represents.   The user can move between the menu en-
              tries by pressing the cursor keys, the first letter of  the  tag
              as  a  hot-key, or the number keys 1 through 9.  There are menu-
              height entries displayed in the menu at one time, but  the  menu
              will be scrolled if there are more entries than that.

              On exit the tag of the chosen menu entry will be printed on dia-
              log's output.  If the "--help-button" option is given, the  cor-
              responding  help  text  will  be printed if the user selects the
              help button.

       --mixedform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen itype ] ...
              The mixedform dialog displays a form consisting  of  labels  and
              fields,  much  like  the  --form dialog.  It differs by adding a
              field-type parameter to each field's description.  Each  bit  in
              the type denotes an attribute of the field:

              1    hidden, e.g., a password field.

              2    readonly, e.g., a label.

       --mixedgauge text height width percent [ tag1 item1 ] ...
              A  mixedgauge  box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.
              The meter indicates the percentage.

              It also displays a list of the tag- and item-values at  the  top
              of the box.  See dialog(3) for the tag values.

              The  text is shown as a caption between the list and meter.  The
              percent value denotes the initial percentage shown in the meter.

              No provision is made for reading data from the standard input as
              --gauge does.

              On  exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  The widget ac-
              cepts no input, so the exit status is always OK.

       --msgbox text height width
              A message box is very similar to a yes/no box.  The only differ-
              ence  between  a  message box and a yes/no box is that a message
              box has only a single OK button.  You can use this dialog box to
              display  any  message  you like.  After reading the message, the
              user can press the ENTER key so that dialog will  exit  and  the
              calling shell script can continue its operation.

              If  the message is too large for the space, dialog may allow you
              to scroll it, provided that the underlying curses implementation
              is  capable  enough.  In this case, a percentage is shown in the
              base of the widget.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.   Only  an  "OK"
              button  is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be re-
              turned.

       --pause text height width seconds
              A pause box displays a meter along the bottom of the  box.   The
              meter  indicates  how  many  seconds remain until the end of the
              pause.  The pause exits when timeout  is  reached  or  the  user
              presses the OK button (status OK) or the user presses the CANCEL
              button or Esc key.

       --passwordbox text height width [init]
              A password box is similar to an input box, except that the  text
              the user enters is not displayed.  This is useful when prompting
              for passwords or other sensitive information.  Be aware that  if
              anything is passed in "init", it will be visible in the system's
              process table to casual snoopers.  Also, it is very confusing to
              the  user  to  provide  them with a default password they cannot
              see.  For these reasons, using  "init"  is  highly  discouraged.
              See "--insecure" if you do not care about your password.

              On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --passwordform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ] ...
              This  is  identical  to  --form  except that all text fields are
              treated as password widgets rather than inputbox widgets.

       --prgbox text command height width

       --prgbox command height width
              A prgbox is very similar to a programbox.

              This dialog box is used to display the output of a command  that
              is specified as an argument to prgbox.

              After the command completes, the user can press the ENTER key so
              that dialog will exit and the calling shell script can  continue
              its operation.

              If  three  parameters  are given, it displays the text under the
              title, delineated from the scrolling file's contents.   If  only
              two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --programbox text height width

       --programbox height width
              A programbox is very similar to a progressbox.  The only differ-
              ence between a program box and a progress box is that a  program
              box  displays  an  OK  button  (but  only after the command com-
              pletes).

              This dialog box is used to display the piped output  of  a  com-
              mand.  After the command completes, the user can press the ENTER
              key so that dialog will exit and the calling  shell  script  can
              continue its operation.

              If  three  parameters  are given, it displays the text under the
              title, delineated from the scrolling file's contents.   If  only
              two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --progressbox text height width

       --progressbox height width
              A progressbox is similar to an tailbox, except that

              a) rather than displaying the contents of a file,
                 it displays the piped output of a command and

              b) it will exit when it reaches the end of the file
                 (there is no "OK" button).

              If  three  parameters  are given, it displays the text under the
              title, delineated from the scrolling file's contents.   If  only
              two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --radiolist text height width list-height  [ tag item status ] ...
              A  radiolist  box is similar to a menu box.  The only difference
              is that you can indicate which entry is currently  selected,  by
              setting its status to on.

              On  exit,  the  tag  of the selected item is written to dialog's
              output.

       --tailbox file height width
              Display text from a file in a dialog box, as in a "tail -f" com-
              mand.   Scroll  left/right using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-
              keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.   Only  an  "OK"
              button  is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be re-
              turned.

       --rangebox text height width min-value max-value default-value
              Allow the user to select from a range of values, e.g.,  using  a
              slider.   The  dialog shows the current value as a bar (like the
              gauge dialog).  Tabs or arrow keys move the cursor  between  the
              buttons and the value.  When the cursor is on the value, you can
              edit it by:

              left/right cursor movement to select a digit to modify

              +/-  characters to increment/decrement the digit by one

              0 through 9
                   to set the digit to the given value

              Some keys are also recognized in all cursor positions:

              home/end
                   set the value to its maximum or minimum

              pageup/pagedown
                   increment the value so that the slider moves by one column

       --tailboxbg file height width
              Display text from a file in a dialog box as a  background  task,
              as  in  a "tail -f &" command.  Scroll left/right using vi-style
              'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

              Dialog treats the background task specially if there  are  other
              widgets  (--and-widget) on the screen concurrently.  Until those
              widgets are closed (e.g., an "OK"), dialog will perform  all  of
              the  tailboxbg widgets in the same process, polling for updates.
              You may use a tab to traverse between the widgets on the screen,
              and  close them individually, e.g., by pressing ENTER.  Once the
              non-tailboxbg widgets are closed, dialog forks a copy of  itself
              into  the  background,  and  prints its process id if the "--no-
              kill" option is given.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an  "EXIT"
              button  is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be re-
              turned.

              NOTE: Older versions of dialog forked immediately and  attempted
              to  update  the screen individually.  Besides being bad for per-
              formance, it was unworkable.  Some older scripts  may  not  work
              properly with the polled scheme.

       --textbox file height width
              A text box lets you display the contents of a text file in a di-
              alog box.  It is like a simple text file viewer.  The  user  can
              move  through  the  file by using the cursor, page-up, page-down
              and HOME/END keys available on most keyboards.  If the lines are
              too  long to be displayed in the box, the LEFT/RIGHT keys can be
              used to scroll the text region horizontally.  You may  also  use
              vi-style  keys h, j, k, and l in place of the cursor keys, and B
              or N in place of the page-up and page-down keys.  Scroll up/down
              using  vi-style  'k'  and 'j', or arrow-keys.  Scroll left/right
              using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.   A  '0'  resets  the
              left/right  scrolling.   For  more convenience, vi-style forward
              and backward searching functions are also provided.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an  "EXIT"
              button  is provided for input, but an ESC exit status may be re-
              turned.

       --timebox text height [width hour minute second]
              A dialog is displayed which allows you to  select  hour,  minute
              and  second.  If the values for hour, minute or second are miss-
              ing or negative, the current  date's  corresponding  values  are
              used.   You  can  increment  or decrement any of those using the
              left-, up-, right- and down-arrows.  Use tab or backtab to  move
              between windows.

              On  exit,  the result is printed in the form hour:minute:second.
              The format can be overridden using the --time-format option.

       --treeview text height width list-height [ tag item status depth ] ...
              Display data organized as a tree.  Each group of data contains a
              tag,  the  text  to  display  for  the item, its status ("on" or
              "off") and the depth of the item in the tree.

              Only one item can be selected (like the radiolist).  The tag  is
              not displayed.

              On  exit,  the  tag  of the selected item is written to dialog's
              output.

       --yesno text height width
              A yes/no dialog box of size height rows by width columns will be
              displayed.  The string specified by text is displayed inside the
              dialog box.  If this string is too long to fit in one  line,  it
              will be automatically divided into multiple lines at appropriate
              places.  The text string can also contain the sub-string "\n" or
              newline  characters  `\n'  to  control line breaking explicitly.
              This dialog box is useful for asking questions that require  the
              user  to answer either yes or no.  The dialog box has a Yes but-
              ton and a No button, in which the user  can  switch  between  by
              pressing the TAB key.

              On  exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  In addition to
              the "Yes" and "No" exit codes (see DIAGNOSTICS) an ESC exit sta-
              tus may be returned.

              The  codes used for "Yes" and "No" match those used for "OK" and
              "Cancel", internally no distinction is made.


Obsolete Options

       --beep This was used to tell the original cdialog that it should make a
              beep  when  the separate processes of the tailboxbg widget would
              repaint the screen.

       --beep-after
              Beep after a user has completed a widget by pressing one of  the
              buttons.


RUN-TIME CONFIGURATION

       1.  Create a sample configuration file by typing:

              dialog --create-rc file

       2.  At start, dialog determines the settings to use as follows:

           a)  if  environment  variable DIALOGRC is set, its value determines
               the name of the configuration file.

           b)  if the file in (a) is not found, use the  file  $HOME/.dialogrc
               as the configuration file.

           c)  if  the  file  in (b) is not found, try using the GLOBALRC file
               determined at compile-time, i.e., /etc/dialogrc.

           d)  if the file in (c) is not found, use compiled in defaults.

       3.  Edit the sample configuration file and copy it to some  place  that
           dialog can find, as stated in step 2 above.


KEY BINDINGS

       You can override or add to key bindings in dialog by adding to the con-
       figuration file.  Dialog's bindkey command maps single keys to its  in-
       ternal coding.

              bindkey widget curses_key dialog_key

       The  widget  name can be "*" (all widgets), or specific widgets such as
       textbox.  Specific widget bindings override the "*" bindings.  User-de-
       fined bindings override the built-in bindings.

       The  curses_key  can  be  any of the names derived from curses.h, e.g.,
       "HELP" from "KEY_HELP".  Dialog also recognizes ANSI control characters
       such  as "^A", "^?", as well as C1-controls such as "~A" and "~?".  Fi-
       nally, it allows any single character to be escaped with a backslash.

       Dialog's internal keycode names correspond to the DLG_KEYS_ENUM type in
       dlg_keys.h, e.g., "HELP" from "DLGK_HELP".


Widget Names

       Some  widgets  (such  as  the formbox) have an area where fields can be
       edited.  Those are managed in a subwindow of the widget, and  may  have
       separate  keybindings  from  the main widget because the subwindows are
       registered using a different name.

                     Widget        Window name   Subwindow Name
                     -------------------------------------------
                     calendar      calendar
                     checklist     checklist
                     editbox       editbox       editbox2
                     form          formbox       formfield
                     fselect       fselect       fselect2
                     inputbox      inputbox      inputbox2
                     menu          menubox       menu
                     msgbox        msgbox
                     pause         pause
                     progressbox   progressbox
                     radiolist     radiolist
                     tailbox       tailbox
                     textbox       textbox       searchbox
                     timebox       timebox

                     yesno         yesno
                     -------------------------------------------

       Some widgets are actually other widgets,  using  internal  settings  to
       modify the behavior.  Those use the same widget name as the actual wid-
       get:

                            Widget         Actual Widget
                            -----------------------------
                            dselect        fselect
                            infobox        msgbox
                            inputmenu      menu
                            mixedform      form
                            passwordbox    inputbox
                            passwordform   form
                            prgbox         progressbox
                            programbox     progressbox
                            tailboxbg      tailbox
                            -----------------------------


Built-in Bindings

       This manual page does not list the key bindings for  each  widget,  be-
       cause  that detailed information can be obtained by running dialog.  If
       you have set the --trace option, dialog writes the key-binding informa-
       tion for each widget as it is registered.


Example

       Normally  dialog uses different keys for navigating between the buttons
       and editing part of a dialog versus navigating within the editing part.
       That  is,  tab  (and back-tab) traverse buttons (or between buttons and
       the editing part), while arrow keys traverse fields within the  editing
       part.   Tabs  are  also recognized as a special case for traversing be-
       tween widgets, e.g., when using multiple tailboxbg widgets.

       Some users may wish to use the same key for traversing within the edit-
       ing part as for traversing between buttons.  The form widget is written
       to support this sort of redefinition of the keys, by adding  a  special
       group in dlgk_keys.h for "form" (left/right/next/prev).  Here is an ex-
       ample binding demonstrating how to do this:

              bindkey formfield TAB  form_NEXT
              bindkey formbox   TAB  form_NEXT
              bindkey formfield BTAB form_prev
              bindkey formbox   BTAB form_prev

       That type of redefinition would not be useful in other  widgets,  e.g.,
       calendar, due to the potentially large number of fields to traverse.


ENVIRONMENT

       DIALOGOPTS     Define  this variable to apply any of the common options
                      to each widget.  Most of the common  options  are  reset
                      before  processing  each widget.  If you set the options
                      in this environment variable, they are applied  to  dia-
                      log's state after the reset.  As in the "--file" option,
                      double-quotes and backslashes are interpreted.

                      The "--file" option is not considered  a  common  option
                      (so  you  cannot  embed it within this environment vari-
                      able).

       DIALOGRC       Define this variable if you want to specify the name  of
                      the configuration file to use.

       DIALOG_CANCEL

       DIALOG_ERROR

       DIALOG_ESC

       DIALOG_EXTRA

       DIALOG_HELP

       DIALOG_ITEM_HELP

       DIALOG_OK      Define any of these variables to change the exit code on
                      Cancel (1), error (-1), ESC (255), Extra (3), Help  (2),
                      Help  with  --item-help  (2), or OK (0).  Normally shell
                      scripts cannot distinguish between -1 and 255.

       DIALOG_TTY     Set this variable to "1" to provide  compatibility  with
                      older  versions  of  dialog  which  assumed  that if the
                      script redirects the standard output, that  the  "--std-
                      out" option was given.


FILES

       $HOME/.dialogrc     default configuration file


EXAMPLES

       The  dialog sources contain several samples of how to use the different
       box options and how they look.  Just take a  look  into  the  directory
       samples/ of the source.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Exit  status  is  subject to being overridden by environment variables.
       The default values and corresponding  environment  variables  that  can
       override them are:

       0    if the YES or OK button is pressed (DIALOG_OK).

       1    if the No or Cancel button is pressed (DIALOG_CANCEL).

       2    if the Help button is pressed (DIALOG_HELP),
            except as noted below about DIALOG_ITEM_HELP.

       3    if the Extra button is pressed (DIALOG_EXTRA).

       4    if the Help button is pressed,
            and the --item-help option is set
            and the DIALOG_ITEM_HELP environment variable is set to 4.

            While  any  of  the exit-codes can be overridden using environment
            variables, this special case was introduced in  2004  to  simplify
            compatibility.   Dialog  uses  DIALOG_ITEM_HELP(4) internally, but
            unless the environment variable is also set, it  changes  that  to
            DIALOG_HELP(2) on exit.

       -1   if  errors  occur inside dialog (DIALOG_ERROR) or dialog exits be-
            cause the ESC key (DIALOG_ESC) was pressed.


PORTABILITY

       Dialog works with X/Open curses.  However,  some  implementations  have
       deficiencies:

          o   HPUX  curses (and perhaps others) do not open the terminal prop-
              erly for the newterm function.  This  interferes  with  dialog's
              --input-fd  option, by preventing cursor-keys and similar escape
              sequences from being recognized.

          o   NetBSD 5.1 curses has incomplete  support  for  wide-characters.
              dialog will build, but not all examples display properly.


COMPATIBILITY

       You may want to write scripts which run with other dialog "clones".


ORIGINAL DIALOG

       First, there is the "original" dialog program to consider (versions 0.3
       to 0.9).  It had some misspelled (or inconsistent) options.  The dialog
       program  maps those deprecated options to the preferred ones.  They in-
       clude:

              Option         Treatment
              ---------------------------------
              --beep-after   ignored

              --guage        mapped to --gauge
              ---------------------------------


XDIALOG

       Technically, "Xdialog", this is an X application.  With some  care,  it
       is possible to write useful scripts that work with both Xdialog and di-
       alog.

       The dialog program ignores these options which are recognized by  Xdia-
       log:

              Option             Treatment
              -----------------------------------------------
              --allow-close      ignored
              --auto-placement   ignored
              --fixed-font       ignored
              --icon             ignored
              --keep-colors      ignored
              --no-close         ignored
              --no-cr-wrap       ignored
              --screen-center    ignored
              --separator        mapped to --separate-output
              --smooth           ignored
              --under-mouse      ignored
              --wmclass          ignored
              -----------------------------------------------

       Xdialog's  manpage has a section discussing its compatibility with dia-
       log.  There are some differences not shown in the manpage.   For  exam-
       ple, the html documentation states

              Note: former Xdialog releases used the "\n" (line feed) as a re-
              sults separator for the checklist widget; this has been  changed
              to  "/"  in Xdialog v1.5.0 to make it compatible with (c)dialog.
              In your old scripts using the Xdialog checklist, you  will  then
              have  to add the --separate-output option before the --checklist
              one.

       Dialog has not used a different separator; the  difference  was  likely
       due to confusion regarding some script.


WHIPTAIL

       Then  there  is  whiptail.  For practical purposes, it is maintained by
       Debian (very little work is done by its upstream developers).  Its doc-
       umentation (README.whiptail) claims

              whiptail(1) is a lightweight replacement for dialog(1),
              to provide dialog boxes for shell scripts.
              It is built on the
              newt windowing library rather than the ncurses library, allowing
              it to be smaller in embedded environments such as installers,
              rescue disks, etc.

              whiptail is designed to be drop-in compatible with dialog, but
              has less features: some dialog boxes are not implemented, such
              as tailbox, timebox, calendarbox, etc.

       Comparing  actual sizes (Debian testing, 2007/1/10): The total of sizes
       for whiptail, the newt, popt and slang libraries is 757 KB.  The compa-
       rable  number  for  dialog (counting ncurses) is 520 KB.  Disregard the
       first paragraph.

       The second paragraph is misleading, since whiptail also does  not  work
       for  common options of dialog, such as the gauge box.  whiptail is less
       compatible with dialog than the original mid-1990s dialog 0.4 program.

       whiptail's manpage borrows features from dialog, e.g., but oddly  cites
       only  dialog  versions up to 0.4 (1994) as a source.  That is, its man-
       page refers to features which were borrowed from more  recent  versions
       of dialog, e.g.,

       o   --gauge (from 0.5)

       o   --passwordbox (from Debian changes in 1999),

       o   --default-item (from dialog 2000/02/22),

       o   --output-fd (from dialog 2002/08/14).

       Somewhat  humorously,  one may note that the popt feature (undocumented
       in its manpage) of using a "--" as an escape was documented in dialog's
       manpage  about  a  year  before it was mentioned in whiptail's manpage.
       whiptail's manpage incorrectly attributes that to getopt (and is  inac-
       curate anyway).

       Debian uses whiptail for the official dialog variation.

       The  dialog  program ignores or maps these options which are recognized
       by whiptail:

              Option            Treatment
              -------------------------------------------
              --cancel-button   mapped to --cancel-label
              --fb              ignored
              --fullbutton      ignored
              --no-button       mapped to --no-label
              --nocancel        mapped to --no-cancel
              --noitem          mapped to --no-items
              --notags          mapped to --no-tags
              --ok-button       mapped to --ok-label
              --scrolltext      mapped to --scrollbar
              --topleft         mapped to --begin 0 0
              --yes-button      mapped to --yes-label
              -------------------------------------------

       There are visual differences which are not  addressed  by  command-line
       options:

       o   dialog  centers  lists  within the window.  whiptail typically puts
           lists against the left margin.

       o   whiptail uses angle brackets ("<" and  ">")  for  marking  buttons.
           dialog uses square brackets.

       o   whiptail  marks the limits of subtitles with vertical bars.  dialog
           does not mark the limits.

       o   whiptail attempts to mark the top/bottom cells of a scrollbar  with
           up/down  arrows.  When it cannot do this, it fills those cells with
           the background color of the scrollbar and confusing the user.  dia-
           log uses the entire scrollbar space, thereby getting better resolu-
           tion.


BUGS

       Perhaps.


AUTHOR

       Thomas E. Dickey (updates for 0.9b and beyond)


CONTRIBUTORS

       Kiran Cherupally - the mixed form and mixed gauge widgets.

       Tobias C. Rittweiler

       Valery Reznic - the form and progressbox widgets.

       Yura Kalinichenko adapted the gauge widget as "pause".

       This is a rewrite (except as needed to provide  compatibility)  of  the
       earlier version of dialog 0.9a, which lists as authors:

       o   Savio Lam - version 0.3, "dialog"

       o   Stuart Herbert - patch for version 0.4

       o   Marc Ewing - the gauge widget.

       o   Pasquale De Marco "Pako" - version 0.9a, "cdialog"

$Date: 2014/02/20 00:32:58 $                                         DIALOG(1)